Anticipation: Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro
Roof concept and design: schlaich bergermann und partner
Knut Göppert with Knut Stockhusen and Thomas Moschner and Miriam Sayeg
Photovoltaic design: schlaich bergermann und partner
Bowl reconstruction design: Daniel Fernandes Arquitectos
Membrane construction: Hightex GmbH
Wind tunnel tests: Wacker Ingenieure
Location: R. Prof. Eurico Rabelo, Complexo Esportivo do Maracanã, 20271-150 Rio de Janeiro
In order to change the external appearance of the original stadium as little as possible, the outer edge of the roof construction was designed to come down low, with the shape of the roof as a whole appearing to float above the stadium bowl. This was achieved by designing a looped cable roof , which is based on the construction of a spoked wheel. A strong circular roof, able to bear pressure, suction and horizontal loads, was created by combining a circumferential external compression ring with a pre-tensioned cable net composed of inner tension rings and radial connection cables.
The existing building geometry is transferred to the roof construction: the 60 support axes form the basic geometry for the same number of roof axes (radial cable girders). According to the basic principles of a looped cable roof, the course of the ring cables in the ground plan follows the geometry of the compression ring. At a constant roof depth of 68 m, this results in an internal opening of 160 x 122 m. The spread of the radial cables, i.e. the flying mast height, is constant and equal to 13.5 m.
A textile membrane clamped between the upper radial cables constitutes the actual roof covering. In order to give the membrane area the double curvature required for stability, an additional, shaping-giving radial valley cable is located in the middle of each of the 60 roof sections. This pulls the membrane downwards against the course of the main radial cables. The valley cable is braced downwards against the lower tension ring in the axis of the flying masts, which creates troughs in the roof surface at these points, turning the membrane into an evenly puckered skin with high and low points.
General contractor: Consórcio Maracanã
Start of planning: April 2009
Completion: April 2013
Capacity for the World Cup: 81,550 (including VIP box seats)
Covered area: 45,500 m²
Dimensions: 298 x 260 m
Steel construction: 2,900 t
Cable construction: 840 t
Membrane area: 43,800 m²